National Library of Medicine

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Explore research on industrial lead exposure, childhood lead poisoning, and the health impacts of lead water pipes, as well as related public health guidance through items in the NLM Digital Collections.

A book cover page

Industrial Toxicology, Alice Hamilton and Rutherford Johnstone, 1945

Courtesy National Library of Medicine

In a later edition of the landmark study Industrial Toxicology, physicians Alice Hamilton and Rutherford Johnstone examined workplace toxins in two parts. Hamilton wrote about pathology and diagnosis of diseases caused by industrial poisons like lead, benzene, and radioactive substances in part one. Johnstone covered treatment and prevention in part two.