National Library of Medicine

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Explore research on industrial lead exposure, childhood lead poisoning, and the health impacts of lead water pipes, as well as related public health guidance through items in the NLM Digital Collections.

A book page

Service-Pipes for Water: An Investigation Made at the Suggestion of the Board of Consulting Physicians, Eben N. Hosrford, 1849

Courtesy National Library of Medicine

During the 19th century, American scientist Eben Horsford studied water in lead pipes around Boston. Based on his research, he concluded that water could be distributed safely through both iron and lead pipes.